Mr. Shafi Mohammad and Dr. Brij Kishore Prasad



A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells, store minerals, provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility. Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue. Bone density measurement is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. DXA is currently the most widely used for the measuring of BMD, but quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been described as a more cost-effective approach to measure bone density. The DXA test works by measuring a specific bone or bones, usually the spine, hip, and wrist. Results are generally scored by two measures, the T-score and the Z-score. Scores indicate the amount one's bone mineral density varies from the mean. Negative scores indicate lower bone density, and positive scores indicate higher. Osteopenia and Osteoporosis are Common problems related to bone mineral density. Many studied showed that Physical exercise is an important factor in the acceleration and maintenance of bone mineral density (BMD). High-impact sports have been linked to increased bone density in young athletes. Many other studies held in recent past has proved that Individuals over 30, can still improve bone health Opens a New Window. through exercise.

Keywords: DXA, Osteoporosis and Osteopenia.

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